Paper Presenters Price
Water Analyses A Basis for the Detection and Prevention of Injection Water Problems

In any water flood project the operator may take one of two routes regarding water analyses made at the start of the project and during its life. The other, a more desirable route, is to have pertinent analyses made at the beginning and periodically during the life of the project. This paper outlines some of the problems that can occur as the result of changes in injection water. Corrosion of equipment and piping, plugging of the producing sand, scale formations, and the role of bacteria are discussed.


A.W. Baumgartner, Bradford Laboratories

$7.50
Paper: Water Analyses A Basis for the Detection and Prevention of Injection Water Problems
Paper: Water Analyses A Basis for the Detection and Prevention of Injection Water Problems
Price
$7.50
Water and The Petroleum Landman

The paper will attempt to present the law of Texas and adjoining states relating to the use and ownership of water as such law concerns and should be of interest to the oil and gas lease owner and operator. The paper will discuss such subjects as ownership of the fresh water and salt water under grant, reservation, lease or permit; right of user of the surface owner, the mineral owner, and the oil and gas lessee; regulation by the State and its governmental agencies; and responsibility for wrongful use, loss, or pollution.


W.B. Browder, Jr. Attorney, Stubbeman, McRae, Sealy & Laughlin

$7.50
Paper: Water and The Petroleum Landman
Paper: Water and The Petroleum Landman
Price
$7.50
WATER DETECTION SYSTEMS FOR USE WITH ESP MOTORS

Many ESP failure modes result in the ingress of water into the motor resulting ultimately in motor electrical failure. Knowing that the isolation of the motor from well fluid has been compromised. Would allow the option of pulling the unit before electrical failure, significantly reducing the cost of repair. Various methods have been used to monitor insulation resistance to determine the electrical condition of the motor and cable, however, these methods are relatively expensive, and do not provide an indication until the insulation system has already been affected. This paper describes a method of detecting the presence of free water at the bottom of submersible motors. Fifteen such units are installed and functioning as expected, however, the benefit is yet to be demonstrated.


Rod Store, Chevron U.S.A. Production Company

$7.50
Paper: WATER DETECTION SYSTEMS FOR USE WITH ESP MOTORS
Paper: WATER DETECTION SYSTEMS FOR USE WITH ESP MOTORS
Price
$7.50
Water Flood Pumping In the South Ward Field

Among the peculiarities of producing an oil well which is involved in a secondary recovery project by water flooding, it is probably outstanding that the performance history of such a well can be expected to be in exact reverse order of that expected from a normal primary producing well. At the outset of a water flood project, the normal producing well is a marginal producer or "stripper," possibly making only one or two barrels daily. As the injection begins to yield results, old production equipment, such as the central power and gas lift equipment, is retired in favor of an individual pumping unit capable of handling the increasing volume and load. This volume and load continue to increase throughout the life of the water flood producer, even though the percentage of oil eventually starts to decrease as water production starts. Finally, as the high lifting cost per barrel of oil becomes prohibitive due to the small amount of oil being produced, the rods and pump are removed and the well is allowed to flow for the remainder of the project. Thus, the life of a primary producing well has been traced, but in reverse order.


R.E. Turrentine, Texas Pacific Coal and Oil co.

$7.50
Paper: Water Flood Pumping In the South Ward Field
Paper: Water Flood Pumping In the South Ward Field
Price
$7.50
Water Flooding Equipment and Injection Station Piping

The correct application of equipment on waterflood projects has become difficult and confusing to the waterflood operator during the past several years due to the multitude of equipment available which will perform the same function. This paper is being presented to pass on information that might help eliminate a portion of this confusion. It is based on observations and past experience of the writer.


Clay Underwood, Bethlehem Supply Co.

$7.50
Paper: Water Flooding Equipment and Injection Station Piping
Paper: Water Flooding Equipment and Injection Station Piping
Price
$7.50
Water Injection Problems in Waterflood Operation

Before discussing the various types of problems which arise when water is injected during waterflood operations, it is advisable to define the term "satisfactory intake rate". This is not as easy to define as it might seem, and a clear definition which will fit all cases is not possible. Early in a waterflood operation (first few months), the water injection rate at a given injection well may be considered satisfactory if the rate is two or three times greater than the injection rate at the same well a year later, even though in each case the pressure applied at the well head is exactly the same.


John F. Buckwalter, Ryder Scott Company

$7.50
Paper: Water Injection Problems in Waterflood Operation
Paper: Water Injection Problems in Waterflood Operation
Price
$7.50
WATER SHUT-OFF TREATMENTS USING AN ORGANICALLY CROSSLINKED POLYMER SYSTEM IN MEXICO

This paper presents the application of an organically crosslinked polymer system (OCP), a system widely used in the oil industry for water shutoff applications. The OCP system is based on a copolymer of acrylamide and t-butyl acrylate (PAtBA) crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI). To date, more than 300 jobs have been performed worldwide and at least about 100 jobs have been done in Mexico with this system to address conformance problems such as: water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repair. An overview of case histories which utilized OCP in various regions of Mexico is presented for a wide variety of applications. Particularly, a case history of an offshore well treated with the OCP is presented. A direct comparison of the application of the OCP with conventional cement squeeze treatment is presented to illustrate the advantage of having a deep matrix penetration for a more efficient water shutoff. In addition, data presented in this paper indicates the development of a retarder that allows the upper placement temperature of the OCP system to be raised to at least 350_F. The upper placement temperature of the system originally was ~260_F.


Julio E. Vasquez, Ivan Jurado, Arturo Santillan, Halliburton, Ramon Hernandez, PEMEX

$7.50
Paper: WATER SHUT-OFF TREATMENTS USING AN ORGANICALLY CROSSLINKED POLYMER SYSTEM IN MEXICO
Paper: WATER SHUT-OFF TREATMENTS USING AN ORGANICALLY CROSSLINKED POLYMER SYSTEM IN MEXICO
Price
$7.50
WATER TECHNOLOGY UNDERSTANDING, INTERPRETING AND UTILIZING WATER ANALYSIS DATA

The significance and importance of water to the Oil and Gas Industry cannot be overstated. While water is often an unwanted by-product of production, water is utilized in many production scenarios and is often times the primary driver for the production of oil. Water, by its inherent nature, will dissolve and carry many impurities within it. These impurities will remain in equilibrium with each other until acted upon by some outside force. These impurities can result in accelerated corrosion, mineral scale depositions, stress corrosion cracking of metals, plugging problems and erosion/corrosion of metallic equipment. It is vital to gain an understanding of the dissolved and suspended constituents of produced, or injected, water and to identify relevant changes in these compositions. This paper will discuss the importance of an accurate water analysis and will discuss the practical uses of this information.


Becky L. Ogden, Multi-Chem Production Chemicals

$7.50
Paper: WATER TECHNOLOGY UNDERSTANDING, INTERPRETING AND UTILIZING WATER ANALYSIS DATA
Paper: WATER TECHNOLOGY UNDERSTANDING, INTERPRETING AND UTILIZING WATER ANALYSIS DATA
Price
$7.50
Waterflood Case History Caprock Queen Field

Waterflooding in the Caprock Queen Field began with a pilot waterflood initiated in 1956. Today, essentially the entire field is under waterflood. There are 13 different projects in operation; eleven are units while two are of the cooperative type. All P3 projects have utilized 80- acre five-spot patterns. This case history is presented in order to depict the general performance of 13 successful Queen Sand waterfloods, and should be helpful in predicting the performance of other waterfloods that may be initiated in similar reservoirs. In many cases the engineer, is forced to use experience factors or "rules of thumb" in order to predict the performance of a proposed waterflood. When adequate reservoir, data is available he should, of course, make use of it in predicting performance. However, even after making calculations and the corresponding predictions, the engineer should attempt to compare his predictions with actual performance of other floods, either in operation or depleted, which are similar to the flood he is proposing. Quite often there are floods in the same field or in the same formation in a nearby field that are comparable to the proposed flood. A review of the performance of similar floods can be helpful, not only in designing the injection system and selecting a pattern, but also in making a reasonable predication of the performance that can be expected. The data used in preparing this case history was taken from reports published by the New Mexico Oil and Gas Engineering Committee.


W.E. Pickert, Ryder Scott Company

$7.50
Paper: Waterflood Case History Caprock Queen Field
Paper: Waterflood Case History Caprock Queen Field
Price
$7.50
Waterflood Developments In The Texas Panhandle

This paper reviews the history of pilot waterflood projects in the Panhandle. It discusses specific floods and results obtained from them.


J.D. Kenworthy, Kewanee Oil Company

$7.50
Paper: Waterflood Developments In The Texas Panhandle
Paper: Waterflood Developments In The Texas Panhandle
Price
$7.50
Waterflood Pattern Realignment At The McElroy Field Section 205 Case History

A waterflood pattern realignment project in the Grayburg / San Andres McElroy Field is improving the waterflood performance. This paper presents a case history of a 640-acre [259 ha] section of the field that was realigned in 1988. Irregular and widely spaced patterns were developed into smaller and more uniform patterns. The results of the realignment are proving the economic viability of realignment work at McElroy and are improving reservoir characterization.


Mike Lemen, Tom Burlas & Leon Roe, Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

$7.50
Paper: Waterflood Pattern Realignment At The McElroy Field Section 205 Case History
Paper: Waterflood Pattern Realignment At The McElroy Field Section 205 Case History
Price
$7.50
Waterflood Surveillance

Surveillance, in order for it to be effective, should be implemented through an organization with adequate staffing and technology. Engineering and field operations organizations should be complementary, providing for specific lines of communications, and yet at the same time encouraging informal personal exchanges between both groups. Surveillance of a waterflood project requires constant cooperation between the two groups in order to collect, document, and analyze an immense quantity of data, and carry out an efficient operation.


W.K. Ghauri, Shell Oil Company

$7.50
Paper: Waterflood Surveillance
Paper: Waterflood Surveillance
Price
$7.50
Waterflooding the Grayburg Formation On The J.L. Johnson AB Lease Experience in The Johnson Field

The Grayburg formation in the Johnson field, Ector County, Texas, is a more complex reservoir than originally believed. Poor response from waterflooding the J. L. Johnson "AB" lease with 40-acre five-spots led to development with ZO-acre line-drive patterns. This caused a substantial production increase. Infill drilling has lead to the discovery of random, anhydrite-filled sections which act as barriers to flow. They are probably interconnected and may be the cause of poor response to injection on wide spacing. Anhydrite barriers may exist both in other parts of the Johnson field and in surrounding fields. These barriers could play an important role in determining how other waterfloods are designed.


R.S. Prentice, ARCO Oil and Gas Company

$7.50
Paper: Waterflooding the Grayburg Formation On The J.L. Johnson AB Lease Experience in The Johnson Field
Paper: Waterflooding the Grayburg Formation On The J.L. Johnson AB Lease Experience in The Johnson Field
Price
$7.50
Well Analysis Control

Electronic equipment is available for installation on electric motor driven beam pumping units which provides load and displacement data for a complete well analysis including rod stress, gearbox torque and downhole pump card calculations. The electronic equipment also monitors the load and displacement and shuts the well down for a predetermined amount of time when a pumped-off condition occurs and also shuts the well down and sets an alarm when a rod part is detected. When well data is needed for analysis the load and displacement data can be plotted on a dynamometer and at the same time the load and displacement data is recorded on an electronic memory card for replay into a computer. The electronic memory card records one full cycle of the pumping unit in equal time increments for use in gearbox torque and downhole pump card calculations.


Thomas Standish, Delta-X Corp.

$7.50
Paper: Well Analysis Control
Paper: Well Analysis Control
Price
$7.50
Well Blowout Control

When a well kicks, most well control methods recommend that the well be shut in to observe surface pressures. Many times this is not feasible. An operator must use judgment to determine when he cannot shut in. Underground blowouts can be created by merely closing in a well. To property control a kick, surface control equipment should be capable of handling large volumes of gas for a relatively long period of time. Bottom-hole circulating pressures can be calculated while circulating out a kick on the chokes. These calculations #en relieve the operator from having to shut a well in for pressures when loss of circulation is expected. Well control methods must be simple to be used infield work. Complicated methods requiring computers for solutions will never be entirely satisfactory for the field. A simple well control method readily usable in the field will be discussed. Calculations allow the operator to estimate the producing potential of a gas well while killing it. Use of proper gas handling equipment and good well control practices allow the operator to safely use underbalanced drilling to cut well costs.


E.R. West, E.R. West Engineering Inc.

$7.50
Paper: Well Blowout Control
Paper: Well Blowout Control
Price
$7.50
Well Casing Cathodic Protection Evaluation Program In The Spraberry (Trend Area) Field

Pioneer Natural Resources is currently undertaking a study of well casing failures in the Spraberry (Trend Area) Field located primarily in Midland County, Texas. Failure trend studies indicate a high incidence of external casing failures in the San Andres formation, a known saltwater-bearing and saltwater disposal formation that generally has substantial H2S content. Several well casings were selected as candidates for down-hole inspection logs to determine if cathodic protection could be a viable solution to the external corrosion problem. "Test" cathodic protection systems were installed and down-hole tools were utilized both prior to and after energizing the systems to assess the external condition of the well casing. Anodic/cathodic areas and axial current flow patterns identified on the logs were correlated to previously conducted cement bond logs, casing inspection logs and gamma ray/neutron logs as well as areas of externally coated casing. Based on logging results and economic evaluation, implementation of a cathodic protection pilot project commenced on November 27, 2001


Clay Brelsford, Bass Engineering & Craig Kuiper & Carl Rounding, Pioneer Natural Resources Inc.

$7.50
Paper: Well Casing Cathodic Protection Evaluation Program In The Spraberry (Trend Area) Field
Paper: Well Casing Cathodic Protection Evaluation Program In The Spraberry (Trend Area) Field
Price
$7.50
Well Depositions Formation, Removal Prevention

In as much as those attending mar not be too familiar with the design and operation of a gas turbine, it would appear that a brief introduction to the unit would help the general understanding of the discussion. Having described the unit in some detail we find that the turbine lends itself to the oilfield industry primarily because it is a continuous duty unit most compatible with the continuous operation of the industry. Being air cooled, light weight, multi-fueled, simply controlled and easily packaged it is easily installed in virtually any location.


J.C. Trainer & Gene Mancillas, Byron Jackson, Inc.

$7.50
Paper: Well Depositions Formation, Removal Prevention
Paper: Well Depositions Formation, Removal Prevention
Price
$7.50
Well Heads

Increased drilling depths with resultant high pressures and multiple completions demand the well head manufacturers furnish equipment which is versatile and economical for all types of completions and pressure ratings. This paper discusses the various available well head components, and also presents a brief history of the evolution of the Christmas Tree from its early beginning to the present unitized well head.


Dr. J.M. LeBeaux, Oil Center Tool Company

$7.50
Paper: Well Heads
Paper: Well Heads
Price
$7.50
Well Inflow Analysis Using Reservoir Deconvolution of Pressure Transient Tests Corresponding

Pressure transient tests are commonly used in production engineering to estimate reservoir pressure, well productivity, permeability and skin damage. In reservoir engineering, transient tests are also used to estimate the distribution of reservoir properties and presence of boundaries. During the last several decades deconvolution methods have been developed to remove wellbore effects and better estimate reservoir parameters using transient tests, but application for production evaluation have been scarce. In this paper deconvolution of pressure transient data is used to remove reservoir effects and determine inflow rates and wellbore fluid volumes, providing a better understanding of wellbore phenomena of interest in well maintenance, production engineering and artificial lift evaluation. The basic mathematical background is presented, along with real examples showing how the results add insight into better understanding wellbore performance, including the evaluation of pump-off controller or timer settings and wellbore integrity.


Walter B. Fair, Jr.,
Interamerican Petroleum Consultants

$7.50
Paper: Well Inflow Analysis Using Reservoir Deconvolution of Pressure Transient Tests Corresponding
Paper: Well Inflow Analysis Using Reservoir Deconvolution of Pressure Transient Tests Corresponding
Price
$7.50
Well Logging Requirements for Miscible Flood Projects in the Permian Basin

New wirelins logging services and procedures are supplying much needed answers to modeling CO2 floods in the Permian Basin. The new measurements of photoelectric absorptioncross section, gamma ray spectrometry and dielectric permitivity from LDT, NGT, and EPT are combined with CNL, BHC and resistivity measurements in a Synergetic log called VOLAN . Volan supplies the all important lithology, porosity, permeability and residual oil saturations needed for reservoir description. Cased reservoir description is now obtaining lithology, porosity, vertical permeability distribution, and oil saturations through casing. The GST CNL, NGT, and BHC are incorporated into a VOLAN PS.

Determining hydraulic isolation Hnd pipe integrity has become crucial because of the high cost of COs. New monitor techniques using CNL, TDT, and NGT show how CO2 flood can be accurately monitored to determine both vertical and areal sweep efficiency.


Paul D. Heffernan
Schlumberger Well Services

$7.50
Paper: Well Logging Requirements for Miscible Flood Projects in the Permian Basin
Paper: Well Logging Requirements for Miscible Flood Projects in the Permian Basin
Price
$7.50
Well Performance Visualization and Analysis

A system has been developed based on a powerful portable microcomputer and an integrated data acquisition package, connected to the computer's expansion slot, that allows real-time analysis and visualization of pumping well performance. The system integrates all the necessary elements to obtain a complete analysis of the performance of the pumping system which includes the pumping unit (beam or submersible), the wellbore, and the reservoir. The data acquisition package consists of the necessary analog and digital inputs to process data from standard transducers such as pressure, temperature, rod load, displacement. etc. so that detailed surface unit performance curves such as dynamometer, speed, acceleration, power etc. can be obtained and analyzed. When the instrument is used in conjunction with an acoustic pulse generator and receiver, it digitizes (1 KHz rate) and records the reflected acoustic signals which are digitally filtered and automatically processed to determine the liquid level. This is undertaken under program control so that a continuous recording of fluid level vs. time is obtained with the pumping performance parameters. Fluid level data is processed by the software to calculate bottom-hole pressure as well as flow into and out of the well bore. Changing the well from flowing to shut in conditions allows recording of pressure buildup data which is then interpreted in terms of reservoir parameters. Alternatively, pump start-up after shutting in the well in for stabilization, provides draw-down testing capability. The analog/digital electronic system contains output of a 12 volts relay driver for external control of a gas gun valve. Graphic display of the various diagnostic parameters allows complete visualization of the performance of the pumping system as a whole including the reservoir, wellbore and pumping unit. The system can be used as a diagnostic tool to optimize pumping well performance on a periodic basis. The present performance of the well is compared to the performance recorded previously and in the case where significant changes are noted a more detailed analysis is undertaken.


J.N. McCoy, Echometer Co.& A.L. Podio, University of Texas at Austin

$7.50
Paper: Well Performance Visualization and Analysis
Paper: Well Performance Visualization and Analysis
Price
$7.50
Well Preparation for Tertiary Production

Problems which become apparent during a conversion from secondary production to tertiary production should be corrected to help ensure success of the proposed tertiary recovery project. Some problems are inherent to secondary recovery and will carry over into the tertiary project. These problems could be tolerated during secondary recovery, but may mean the difference between success and failure for a tertiary program. These problems can be generalized in two basic categories: Restrictions of Injectivity, Unfavorable Injection Profiles. Some processes will be discussed in detail to aid in combating the problems that will be presented in this paper.


Charles R. Moore, Halliburton Services

$7.50
Paper: Well Preparation for Tertiary Production
Paper: Well Preparation for Tertiary Production
Price
$7.50
Well Remediation Using Expandable Cased-Hole Liners Summary Of Case Histories

Even with rapidly evolving technology, important issues that continue to challenge the oil and gas industry include conservation of hole size, hydraulic isolation of selected zones, maximization of well life, and economic feasibility. Addressing these issues with conventional tubular technology became more difficult, especially in deep drilling and extended-reach applications, in wells using liner hangers, and in aging wells containing deteriorating casing. Solid Expandable Tubulars (SET), a revolutionary technology, successfully addresses these issues in commercial applications. The basic piece of equipment that underlies SET technology is a mechanical expansion device known as an expansion cone that is propagated through downhole tubulars using hydraulic pressure. The movement of the cone expands the tubulars to the desired internal and external diameters in a plastic deformation process known as cold drawing. In drilling applications, a specially designed, expandable liner hanger conserves hole size by eliminating the need for a conventional liner hanger/liner hanger packer, and provides a superior pressure seal compared to conventional technology. In cased wells, expandable casing is clad to existing casing to repair or strengthen the existing casing with minimal decrease in wellbore inside diameter (ID) and flow potential. SET solutions have been successfully installed in the Gulf of Mexico, in U.S. inland wells, as well as in large-scale field trials. This paper briefly describes the technical concepts upon which SETS are based and gives an overview of their applications. The paper then focuses on two recent field installations where cased-hole liners were used to help increase well productivity.


Randy Merritt & Rune Gusevik, Enventure Global Technology, & William Buckler & Nick Steinsberger, Mitchell Energy Co. LP

$7.50
Paper: Well Remediation Using Expandable Cased-Hole Liners Summary Of Case Histories
Paper: Well Remediation Using Expandable Cased-Hole Liners Summary Of Case Histories
Price
$7.50
Well Stimulation With CO2

Theory of CO2 treatment design and application is discussed. A detailed summary of past well treatments and results is presented.


P.F. Beeler, Carbonic Chemicals Corp.

$7.50
Paper: Well Stimulation With CO2
Paper: Well Stimulation With CO2
Price
$7.50
Well Testing

Well testing, a broad general subject with as many different methods as there are operators, is a necessary part of determining the most efficient and conservative means of depleting an oil reservoir and the best method of completion to depletion. An effort will be made at this time to present some of the uses of data obtained from well tests, precautions that should be observed in order to obtain usable tests and a general look at test equipment. The presence or absence of a regulatory body may govern the number of requited well test in any given state. As Texas has a regulatory body in the Railroad Commission, a brief discussion of the test required in the State of Texas will be given. Other tests are left to the discretion of the operator for his use in efficient and economic depletion of the oil from his properties.


John L. Sanders, Magnolia Petroleum Company

$7.50
Paper: Well Testing
Paper: Well Testing
Price
$7.50