Paper Presenters Price
A Field Study Of Downhole Microbial Paraffin Control

A safe and effective biological paraffin control technology, based on the use of a mixed culture of naturally occurring bacteria, has been developed by Kiseki Inc. A research program was undertaken to determine the main mode of action of the microbial paraffin control technology. From the initial phase of this study, the results from field studies on 26 oil wells in Alberta are discussed in relation to the use of bacterial counts in the produced fluid as an indication of effective paraffin control downhole.


J. Jeffrey Wilson, Wayne Chee, Christine O"Grady, & Mark Bishop, Kiseki Inc.

$7.50
Paper: A Field Study Of Downhole Microbial Paraffin Control
Paper: A Field Study Of Downhole Microbial Paraffin Control
Price
$7.50
A Field Study of Electrical and Internal Combustion Prime Movers

A presentation of a three year field study covering 225 pumping wells from depths of 400 to 8000 feet utilizing electrical and internal combustion prime movers. Operational and maintenance costs, motor controls, accessories, record and inspection programs for both methods are discussed.


Bennie L. Franks, Sun Oil Co.

$7.50
Paper: A Field Study of Electrical and Internal Combustion Prime Movers
Paper: A Field Study of Electrical and Internal Combustion Prime Movers
Price
$7.50
A Field Study of Paraffin Control

The primary purpose of this paper is to present a field evaluation of paraffin problems and to show how they can be alleviated by using certain plastic flow lines and plastic coated tubing. In order to more fully examine the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods available, a paraffin cost study of Field A and Field B is presented.


Bennie L. Franks, Sun Oil Co.

$7.50
Paper: A Field Study of Paraffin Control
Paper: A Field Study of Paraffin Control
Price
$7.50
A Gel Diverting Agent Used In Acidizing Treatments

Diverting methods have been developed and used extensively to distribute treating fluids in a zone or to divert them from one zone to another. Diverting may be accomplished mechanically or chemically. Mechanical diverting with perforation-sealing balls is a common procedure, but conditions may exist which make it ineffective. The height of the zone, number of perforations, limited pump rate, and capacity of the formation to take fluid are factors which may lower fluid velocity so that it is not adequate to seat the balls on the perforations. Communication between perforations or behind the casing, or perforations that are not round also may limit the effectiveness of ball sealers. for an impermeable gel diverting system was recognized. A gel diverting system, in order to be used as a diverter in acidizing treatments, has to meet the following criteria: the gel has to have a low viscosity during placement, hydrate to form a solid impermeable gel in the formation, revert with time to a liquid for removal, and leave a minimum of permeability damage. Packers also have provided effective mechanical diverting. However, they are more difficult to use because their effectiveness is dependent on accurately locating the zone to be treated and accurately setting the packer to isolate this zone. Numerous soluble particulated solids, which are often referred to as temporary bridging agents, have been developed for fluid diversion. These are solid chemicals that have varying physical and chemical properties. An agent can usually be selected that is satisfactory for a specific treating operation. These diverting agents usually are transported in a viscous carrier fluid and are pumped between stages of treating fluid. The effectiveness is dependent on the strength and permeability of the bridge formed. Some solid diverters have a wide particle size distribution and form low permeability bridges, but their permeability is not, low enough to effectively divert treating fluids to zones having a permeability less than about 2 md, and the need Various chemical types of gelling agents were evaluated in order to obtain a feasible gel diverting system. On the basis of the gelation time and stability tests, only two gelling agents appeared to meet the necessary criteria. One of these gelling agents was a high-residue natural gum and the other was a low-residue modified natural gum. A gel diverting system using the low-residue gum was finally selected since the diverting-efficiency and permeability-recovery tests showed that using the high-residue gum resulted in permeability damage. So, only the data using the low-residue gel system are presented in this paper, except in the diverting efficiency and permeability-recovery tests, in which case the data from tests using both the high and low residue gums are presented. The procedure used on a field job is presented, and the results are described.


W.R.Dill, Halliburton Services

$7.50
Paper: A Gel Diverting Agent Used In Acidizing Treatments
Paper: A Gel Diverting Agent Used In Acidizing Treatments
Price
$7.50
A GENERALIZED OIL AND GAS REGULATORY DATA MAPPING PORTAL

The oil and gas regulatory data mapping portal was introduced to New Mexico in 2009. The purpose of the mapping portal was to help oil and gas operators, natural resource environmental managers, and other related sector professionals evaluate natural resources and man-made features within a subject area. While initially designed for the New Mexico Pit Rule, the data provided by the portal has proven to be useful for other applications and beyond the borders of New Mexico. The mapping portal has been expanded to include data for surrounding states. Mapped natural resources include, but not limited to: depth to water and ground water elevation from USGS gauging stations; topography; aerial photos, digital elevation models; surface geology; karsts; and surface water. In addition, the mapping portal includes spatial search capabilities that allow querying data to determine proximity of natural resources to a subject site. The mapping portal is available at http://saturn.nmt.edu.


Robert Balch and Andrew Parker; Petroleum Recovery Research Center, New Mexico Tech

$7.50
Paper: A GENERALIZED OIL AND GAS REGULATORY DATA MAPPING PORTAL
Paper: A GENERALIZED OIL AND GAS REGULATORY DATA MAPPING PORTAL
Price
$7.50
A Good Job in Production Is Not Enough

Success and progress in our industry depend upon a coordinated system of integrated activities seeking, but not always maintaining, a balance between production and consumption. We must continue to advance in the technology of finding, producing, transporting and refining petroleum, and, as well, in the transformation of the raw materials into useful products through petrochemical processes. We recognize, therefore, that a good job much be done up and down the line.


J.H. Dunn, The Shamrock Oil and Gas Corporation

$7.50
Paper: A Good Job in Production Is Not Enough
Paper: A Good Job in Production Is Not Enough
Price
$7.50
A Graphical Study of Pumping Wells

Better design, study of operations and planned maintenance of subsurface equipment can often result in reduced lifting cost per barrel of oil. A suggested graphical history of pumping operations will be presented which acts as a graphical records help to readily illustrate problem wells and are also good guides for determining remedial action when necessary. Field cases using the graphical form and results of remedial work will be presented. Normal pulling cost and pump maintenance at various depths will be discussed to emphasize the large sums of depths will be discussed to emphasize the large sums of money that are being spent and the need of monthly systematic well records to determine if operational problems exist.


Bennie L. Franks, Sun Oil Company

$7.50
Paper: A Graphical Study of Pumping Wells
Paper: A Graphical Study of Pumping Wells
Price
$7.50
A Laboratory Instrument to Continuously Monitor The Compressive Strength of Cement Slurries

The "Ultrasonic Cement Analyzer" (UCA) is the name given a new generation device (Fig. 1) that continuously monitors strength development of oil well cement compositions. A single sample of cement slurry is placed in the instrument under pressure and heated to simulate downhole conditions. Measurements of the cement's ultrasonic velocity are started during the fluid state and continue through initial set to any desired point of partial or final strength development. Strength values are continuously computed and displayed until the test is terminated. The result is a complete and precise history of initial set and strength development which can be plotted versus time at any point of interest. The UCA functions with little operator attention aside from start up and shut down. The same information from standard API compressive strength crush tests would require curing a multitude of specimens to preselected test times, with no guarantee that the first test would be short enough or the final test long enough to accurately provide the critical information for the job. Since its introduction some two years ago, the principal advantage of the UCA has been simply to speed collection of reliable compressive strength data. For example, one technician with an eight-chamber UCA can produce more data than eight technicians and 64 separate curing autoclaves. In addition, human error and the opportunity for bias is greatly reduced with the UCA.


Dr. John Burkhalter, David L. Sutton, Dr. Prabhakar P. Rao, Fred L. Sabins; Halliburton Services

$7.50
Paper: A Laboratory Instrument to Continuously Monitor The Compressive Strength of Cement Slurries
Paper: A Laboratory Instrument to Continuously Monitor The Compressive Strength of Cement Slurries
Price
$7.50
A Look At The Development Of Neutron Logging

In the 1940's neutron logging was commercially developed as an alternate method of determining porosity. The ability to respond to formations behind casing foretold a great future. Unfortunately, however, the same principles which allow a neutron log to predict porosity as a function of the hydrogen index of a formation also produce many undesirable effects. The principles of operation of the compensated neutron log represent the culmination of technology intended to overcome these undesirable effects and to provide a usable tool in the search for petroleum products.


C.L. Veach & J.C. Wheatley, Western Wire Line

$7.50
Paper: A Look At The Development Of Neutron Logging
Paper: A Look At The Development Of Neutron Logging
Price
$7.50
A Low-Temperature Breaker For Faster Well Turn-Around And Better Well Clean-Up

Low-temperature (50F to 100F) wells present a special problem for the application of fracturing technology using current highly viscous water-gels. As the gelling-agent concentration increases, the gel/s require more time to effect a complete breakdown of the gel. This tends to slow turn-around time after treatment and, in some cases, inhibits complete clean-up. Techniques have been developed to circumvent this problem, but they involve lowering the gelling-agent concentration. This has also resulted in lowering the proppant concentration and increasing the pump rate. Several studies have shown the importance of high total prop volumes in good stimulation treatments and the importance of controlling pump rate for good frac height control. Thus, stimulation treatment performance has not been as good as it might have been in higher gelling-agent concentrations; higher propping agent concentrations and lower pump rates could have been used. A new low-temperature breaker for water based gels has been developed that allows the controlled breaking of gelled fluids over a temperature range of 50_F to 100_F. Field results are available to show that this breaker is effective in low temperature wells. A summary of this data will be presented.


P.E. Clark & Homer Skelton, Dowell Division of Dow Chemical

$7.50
Paper: A Low-Temperature Breaker For Faster Well Turn-Around And Better Well Clean-Up
Paper: A Low-Temperature Breaker For Faster Well Turn-Around And Better Well Clean-Up
Price
$7.50
A Method for Determining the Orientation of A Water Injection Induced Fracture

The objective of most all waterfloods is to inject water at rates as high as possible without fracturing the formation. Sometimes fractures of limited length are required to reach beyond near wellbore damage of an injection well. However, a fracture that grows to larger distances may drastically affect the volumetric sweep efficiency of a waterflood pattern. As waterflood projects mature, increasingly higher water rates are necessary to maintain oil rates. Increasing water injection rates may exceed the fracture gradient and start or extend a fracture. A pressure falloff test conducted on an injection well provides an estimate of the fracture half-length, but the orientation of the fracture cannot be distinguished. A trial and error procedure is shown to determine the fracture orientation and possible affect on the volumetric sweep efficiency on Levelland area waterfloods by using the fracture half-length from a falloff test and a reservoir simulation program.


Scott Frailey & Paulus Adisoemarta, Texas Tech University & Alberto Giussani & Timothy Brown, Altura Energy Ltd.

$7.50
Paper: A Method for Determining the Orientation of A Water Injection Induced Fracture
Paper: A Method for Determining the Orientation of A Water Injection Induced Fracture
Price
$7.50
A Method For Maintaining Hole Gauge Case Histories In The Permian Basin

Maintaining hole gauge has always been a drilling concern and problem. Historically gauge protection above the bit has been accomplished by using hard metals that offer good wear resistance. There are limitations to this method for actually sustaining a quality gauge hole. Other methods for accomplishing a gauge hole are mechanical devices placed in the drilling assembly, such as reamers. These tools also have limitations in directional applications and hostile environments. This paper will discuss the development of a tool that strategically places Synthetic Diamond Enhanced Inserts to accomplish both hole gauge protection and reaming. The performance of this tool will be economically evaluated with offset data for a direct comparison to the drilling curve and the benefit it derives.


Gary Pfannestiel & Rocky Seale, Smith International

$7.50
Paper: A Method For Maintaining Hole Gauge Case Histories In The Permian Basin
Paper: A Method For Maintaining Hole Gauge Case Histories In The Permian Basin
Price
$7.50
A METHOD FOR STUDYING PRESSURE CYCLING EFFECTS ON CEMENT INTEGRITY IN AN ANNULUS

In a well bore, the cement sheath is subjected to pressure changes from various well operations such as changes in the densities of displacement fluids, pressure testing, fracturing, and remedial operations. Failure of cement sheath in annulus due to pressure changes can lead to debonding from the formation or the casing causing microannulus formation, and/or produce cracks in the cement matrix thereby providing flow paths for fluids such as oil, water or gas. Such failures lead to expensive remedial operations in a producing well, or continuous monitoring in an abandoned well. Designing cement slurries which can withstand cyclic pressure changes helps allow for extended periods of trouble free operations. However, experimental techniques to measure failure resistance of set cement in an annulus to pressure changes are not available. This paper presents a method of testing cement compositions using well bore models with pipe-in-pipe configuration in which cement was circulated in the annulus, cured and subjected to cyclic pressure loads by pressuring and depressurizing the inner pipe. The failure of the cement was measured by the flow rates during pressurization and depressurization cycles of a fluid containing a dye through the cement column as a function of applied pressure. The method was applied to several low density cement formulations. The failure mode at the end of the tests was investigated by cutting the models into several segments and inspection of the cement under fluorescent light. Effects of experimental parameters such as temperature at the time of failure testing, annulus pressure, and slurry design were tested. The results and their implications in designing slurries for long term cement performance are discussed.


B.R. Reedy, Johnny Dennis and Bryan Waugh, Halliburton

$7.50
Paper: A METHOD FOR STUDYING PRESSURE CYCLING EFFECTS ON CEMENT INTEGRITY IN AN ANNULUS
Paper: A METHOD FOR STUDYING PRESSURE CYCLING EFFECTS ON CEMENT INTEGRITY IN AN ANNULUS
Price
$7.50
A Method to Find the Viscous Damping Coefficient And A Faster Diagnostic Model

Several methods of calculating downhole dynamometer cards from surface dynamometer cards have been presented in the literature. Each of the methods requires knowing the viscous damping coefficient. This paper presents a non-iterative method for finding this term. A new method for calculating-a downhole dynamometer card is also presented. This method is faster and more accurate than the fourier analysis and the finite difference method using the second order damped wave equation. In Gibb's patent, two methods of determining the damping coefficient are presented. One is empirically based and the other is an equation that requires knowledge of the pump horsepower. But to calculate the pump horsepower the damping coefficient must be known. Therefore, an iterative procedure is required. This paper presents a non-iterative method for calculating the viscous damping coefficient. An improvement of the method presented by Everitt is suggested and comments on variable damping are made. A coupled set of first order linear differential equations is solved using finite differences to obtain a pump card. A cyclic boundary condition called the wrap around is used to eliminate problems associated with the end points. The wrap around condition eliminates iterating and allows for direct solution.


Michael Bastian, Shell Offshore Inc.; James Keating & Dr. J.W. Jennings, Texas A&M University

$7.50
Paper: A Method to Find the Viscous Damping Coefficient And A Faster Diagnostic Model
Paper: A Method to Find the Viscous Damping Coefficient And A Faster Diagnostic Model
Price
$7.50
A New Approach For Continuous Atmospheric Monitoring Of Hydrogen Sulfide

The vast majority of hydrogen sulfide monitoring systems historically use the solid state, semiconductor, metal oxide film type sensor. This type of H2S sensor has some inherent traits which manifest themselves in the field as application problems. Examples of these application problems include lack of repeatability (span drift), partial or total loss of response with removal of power, frequent and complicated calibration requirements, desensitization with exposure to moisture and the need to subject the sensors to H2S gas between calibrations to prevent them from "going to sleep". The following is an in-depth explanation as to how and why these problems occur along with the hows and whys behind a recommended solution.


Bryan Bates, Sieger Gasalarm

$7.50
Paper: A New Approach For Continuous Atmospheric Monitoring Of Hydrogen Sulfide
Paper: A New Approach For Continuous Atmospheric Monitoring Of Hydrogen Sulfide
Price
$7.50
A NEW APPROACH TO DESCRIBE THE GAS THROUGHPUT CAPACITY OF GAS LIFT VALVES

Gas passage performance of gas lift valves under dynamic conditions has only been studied in the last twenty years. Proper assessment of gas injection rates at valve operating conditions requires the use of sophisticated measuring and control equipment only a few companies possess; and involves tedious and time-consuming data acquisition procedures. As a result, many gas lift installations are designed even today without properly accounting for the dynamic behavior of operating gas lift valves. The authors applied a novel approach to the description of gas lift valve performance and used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques to determine the valve's gas passage characteristics. CFD calculations provide a numerical solution of the governing equations (like the conservation of mass, energy, etc.) that can be written for a flowing fluid. To facilitate the simultaneous solution of the governing equations the flow space (the inside of the valve available for gas flow) must be divided into sufficiently small final volumes i.e. cells. Since the accuracy of flow modeling greatly depends on the proper setup of these cells the paper fully describes their proper spatial distribution. After the cell structure of the gas lift valve was properly set up, CFD calculations allowed the calculation of the gas volume passed by the valve for different combinations of valve stem travels, injection, and production pressures; i.e. for static conditions. In dynamic conditions, however, valve stem travel is a function of the net opening force developing on the tip of the valve stem. Since this force can be found by integrating the pressure distribution on the valve stem tip, an iterative procedure was developed to describe the valve behavior. The final result of the proposed iterative calculation model is the dynamic performance curve of the gas lift valve i.e. the injected gas rate vs. injection, production, and dome charge pressures. The procedure developed by the authors gives gas injections rates very close to those received from the universally-applied RP


Zoltan Turzo, University of Miskolc, Hungary; Gabor Takacs, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi

$7.50
Paper: A NEW APPROACH TO DESCRIBE THE GAS THROUGHPUT CAPACITY OF GAS LIFT VALVES
Paper: A NEW APPROACH TO DESCRIBE THE GAS THROUGHPUT CAPACITY OF GAS LIFT VALVES
Price
$7.50
A New Approach to Permeability Profiles

This paper deals with a new method of obtaining injection and producing well permeability profiles. The flow meter and nuclear fluid density tools and their use in analyzing reservoir behavior will be explained. Numerous logs obtained from secondary recovery projects and in producing wells for fracture evaluation and remedial planning will be discussed.


Wallace B. Johnson, Wright Surverys, Inc.

$7.50
Paper: A New Approach to Permeability Profiles
Paper: A New Approach to Permeability Profiles
Price
$7.50
A New Approach To Scale Inhibitor Application During Stimulation Treatment Using Crosslinked Gels

The present energy situation has required the oil industry to evaluate all feasible methods to sustain and increase production in order to keep pace with our energy needs. 'Lost production due to scale deposition has been a major problem in the oil industry and has plugged many a good well while reducing production in most others. Many different scale inhibition techniques exist today and all have varying degrees of success. It is well known that the most effective and least expensive way to protect against scale deposition is during the initial completion of the well before the problem occurs. Most well completions today include hydraulic fracturing operation using an aqueous crosslinked fluid. These fluids, however, do not lend themselves to the use of scale inhibitors due to compatibility problems. This paper discusses the incompatibility of crosslinked gels with scale inhibitors along with experimental results. This paper attempts to solve the incompatibility problem by proposing three models to run scale inhibitors in conjunction with aqueous crosslinked stimulation fluids. The three models proposed are based on computer studies using a "partial pad" approach. All models have been described in detail and the results of the study have been graphically illustrated. The paper also briefly discusses the different types of oilfield scales, their formation, deposition and mechanism of inhibition.


V.J. Pai & V. Armendariz, The Western Company of North America

$7.50
Paper: A New Approach To Scale Inhibitor Application During Stimulation Treatment Using Crosslinked Gels
Paper: A New Approach To Scale Inhibitor Application During Stimulation Treatment Using Crosslinked Gels
Price
$7.50
A New Approach to Selective Stimulation

Long open-hole or heavily perforated intervals with stringers of varying porosities and permeability have always been difficult stimulation problems. In the majority of instances treatments have been staged, continuously, with various types of blocking agents. Only after the job was complete, could any down-hole evaluation of the success of the diverting agents be estimated. Obviously, critical information such as the extent of the formation treated per stage, communicated zones, channeling behind the pipe, etc. was unavailable until after the treatment was over.


Dave Kemp, Cardinal Chemical, Inc

$7.50
Paper: A New Approach to Selective Stimulation
Paper: A New Approach to Selective Stimulation
Price
$7.50
A New Chemical Retarder For Acid Systems

Carbonate formations have been treated with acid for many years to increase fracture length and conductivity and, thereby, stimulate production. Fracture acidizing of carbonate formations, however, requires consideration of several parameters. One important parameter is the distance acid will penetrate the fracture before completely reacting. This distance is referred to as the acid penetration distance. Other parameters include dynamic fracture geometry and fracture conductivity. Although these three parameters are largely controlled by-formation properties, they can be strongly influenced by the treating fluids used and the techniques employed to place these fluids. Acid penetration distances have been increased to various extents with chemically retarded acids, gelled acids, emulsified acids and acid systems composed of hydrochloric, acetic and/or formic acids. A new chemical retarder has been developed which can be used with emulsified and non-emulsified acids to help increase acid penetration into fractured limestone formations. The unique chemical retarder is chemically and physically adsorbed on the formation where it slows the reaction rate of acid. Besides retarding the acid-limestone reaction effectively, adsorption also appears strong enough to withstand turbulent flow. Although a retarder may greatly increase penetration distance, other parameters, such as fracture conductivity, also have to be considered if the retarder is to be used. For example, during a retarded acid treatment inadequate fracture conductivity may result if fracture cooling causes over retardation of the acid near the wellbore. Placement techniques are in use, however, that could resolve this problem. During treatment, a less retarded acid can be injected before the retarded acid for better conductivity near the wellbore, and the density of preflush can be balanced with the density of partially spent acid for better acid distribution along the fracture face. This paper will discuss the laboratory evaluation of the new retarder's effect on acid penetration distances and reaction times with non-emulsified and emulsified 15% HCl, 20% HCl, 28% HCl and a 7-1/2% HCl-10% formic acid mixture. Also to be discussed, are acid placement techniques used recently in twenty one Mexican wells with the new retarder. Results of these techniques thus far are also listed.


W.R. Dill, Halliburton Services

$7.50
Paper: A New Chemical Retarder For Acid Systems
Paper: A New Chemical Retarder For Acid Systems
Price
$7.50
A New Clay Stabilizer For Use In Completion Fluids

The oil industry customarily has utilized various clay control additives to prevent formation damage caused by the hydration (swelling) or migration of clays. These additives include inorganic metal cations, (e.g. Zr+4, Al+3, Ti+4, et al.) synthetic polyacrylate polymer types, quaternary ammonium salts, and petroleum heavy ends. Clay stabilization using metal cations is accomplished by ion exchange with cations in the clay mineral lattice. These types of clay control agents are limited in application due to their general incompatibility with most polymers used to viscosify completion fluids. This incompatibility is particularly apparent in crosslinked stimulation fluid systems because the metal cations interfere with the crosslinking mechanism of the fluid. Quaternary ammonium salts are also used as clay control agents. They function in approximately the same manner as the metal cations. Synthetic polyacrylate polymers have been used as clay control agents in completion techniques. The polyacrylate function is two-fold. First, the polymer's cationic character under mildly acidic conditions exchanges with lower charged cations located on the clay mineral lattice. Secondly, because this polymer is a long chain molecule (due to molecular weight), it lines the pore wall which insulates the clays involved in the pore channels. Clay damage control through physical isolation of formation clays has been achieved by using petroleum heavy ends, and other similar materials. This method of clay stabilization has shown a degree of effectiveness. A major problem in using this method is due to economics. A number of clay stabilizers have been reported to fuse migrating clays. These systems are used primarily in sand consolidation, hydraulic fracturing and acidizing applications.


Joseph Thompson, Mike A. Smith, Mike A. Smith & G.E. Braun, Titan Division, Dresser Industries Inc.

$7.50
Paper: A New Clay Stabilizer For Use In Completion Fluids
Paper: A New Clay Stabilizer For Use In Completion Fluids
Price
$7.50
A New Concept In Hydrochloric-Hydrofluoric Acid Mixtures For Acidizing Low Permeability Sandstone Formations

Hydrochloric-Hydrofluoric acid mixtures for sandstone acidizing have been the topic of many investigations with respect to optimum hydrofluoric (HF) concentrations necessary for effective treatment. The hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentration needed is only at a concentration necessary to inhibit the formation of calcium fluoride (CaF2), and to provide a conversion media when utilizing ammonium bifluoride for HF production. All indications show that HCl-HF acids in concentration ranges between 3% HCl-0.6% HFto 6% HCl-1.2% HF are in many instances more effective acidizing systems with regard to eliminating the initial damaging effect caused when more conventional HCl-HF treatments are used. These conventional systems tend to chemically and physically dislodge or remove more than they can effectively "clean up", and depend on additional amounts of following acid volume to "eventually" remove these dispersed formation particles, or force them within smaller spaces in the formation. This fives the indication on conventional HCl-HF acids causeing initial "damage", which is followed by restoration of lost permeability, with some improvement, but seldom in proportion to the volumes and concentrations used. Lower concentration HCl-HF acid systems tend to initiate slower and less damaging reactions, thereby "cleaning up" after themselves and offering improved permeability without the initial probable sloughing threat and subsequent "damage" of the higher concentration conventional HCl-HF combinations. Thus an innovation of utilizing weaker HCl systems with intensification via the use of weak HF concentrations has provided an effective means to successfully acidize or acid-frac low permeability sandstone reservoirs.


David L. Holcomb, JR, Cardinal Chemical, Inc.

$7.50
Paper: A New Concept In Hydrochloric-Hydrofluoric Acid Mixtures For Acidizing Low Permeability Sandstone Formations
Paper: A New Concept In Hydrochloric-Hydrofluoric Acid Mixtures For Acidizing Low Permeability Sandstone Formations
Price
$7.50
A New Correlation For Predicting Natural Separation Efficiency

Based on the drift-flux model, a new mathematical formulation was developed to predict natural separation efficiency. The new model presented in this work considers the effect of the slip velocity in the radial direction, variable neglected in previous simplified models. In addition, a correlation for this effect was obtained by fitting the model to experimental data. Good agreement of this simplified model with the experimental data for not only lower but also for higher gas and liquid flow rates has shown the important effect that the slip velocity in the radial direction has in the prediction of natural separation.


Richard Marquez & Mauricio Prado, University of Tulsa

$7.50
Paper: A New Correlation For Predicting Natural Separation Efficiency
Paper: A New Correlation For Predicting Natural Separation Efficiency
Price
$7.50
A New Deep Gas Well Design Which Permits Use of the Most Advanced Completion Techniques

Use of 4-1/2 OD tubular in the completion of deep gas wells makes possible perforating a well with a large, non-expendable type fun while maintaining a pressure differential into the wellbore and treating the well at rates up to 50 BPM. Increases in a well's deliverability as a result of these techniques make the new design economically attractive. These completion methods can be performed on the well without the need to kill it either during or after completion of the well.


J.W. Kimmel, Shell Oil Company

$7.50
Paper: A New Deep Gas Well Design Which Permits Use of the Most Advanced Completion Techniques
Paper: A New Deep Gas Well Design Which Permits Use of the Most Advanced Completion Techniques
Price
$7.50
A New Emulsion Polymer Improves Tight Gas Production

Historically, tight gas formations such as the Strawn limestone in Crockett County, Texas and the Devonian in Andrews and Midland Counties, Texas have been treated with pad and acid treatments consisting of gelled water, gelled acid and

crosslinked hydrochloric acid. A new emulsion polymer has been developed which significantly increases the efficiency of these treatments. The new emulsion polymer exhibits a polymer size approximately 15 times smaller than that previously known to the industry. The polymer also utilizes a highly specific external activator to initiate and promote hydration. This process allows the microsized polymer to effectively disperse prior to hydration, thereby dramatically reducing the potential to form un-hydrated masses ("lumps" or "fisheyes"). Both macro and microscopic "lumps" can be particularly detrimental to the formation matrix. This paper will document the increased well production of the &awn formation in Crockett County, Texas and the

Devonian formation in Andrews and Midland Counties, Texas as a result of the polymer's use, outline the treatment, and describe the chemistry of the new emulsion polymer and its operational efficiency and versatility.


Henry Lopez and George Woo, BJ Services Company, USA,
Charlie HofJI Pioneer Natural Resources

$7.50
Paper: A New Emulsion Polymer Improves Tight Gas Production
Paper: A New Emulsion Polymer Improves Tight Gas Production
Price
$7.50