Paper Presenters Price
(2015012) MODIFIED EVERITT-JENNINGS: A COMPLETE METHODOLGY FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION OF SUCKER ROD PUMPED WELLS

When using artificial lift, namely sucker rod pumps, there are three major factors to consider when trying to control and optimize production: elasticity, viscous friction and mechanical friction. The Modified Everitt-Jennings uses an iteration on dual damping factors to approximate the correct amount of viscous friction to be removed to mimic the energy lost through the viscous forces imparted on the outer diameter of the rods by the fluids. A precise Fluid Load Line Calculation provides a concavity test to diagnose the presence of mechanical friction.


 


Secondly, in order to maximize production and prevent rod string damage, pump-off control technology must be used in conjunction with sucker rod pump installation. The most accurate type of pump-off control is one using pump fillage. The Modified Everitt-Jennings combines an in-depth stress analysis with a powerful Pump Fillage Calculation, which outputs correct pump fillage regardless of downhole conditions present.


 


In this paper, a complete methodology for controlling sucker rod pumps is presented. This methodology combines state of the art, innovative methods that smartly and efficiently automate the control of sucker rod pumped wells.


Victoria Pons, Weatherford $7.50
Paper: (2015012)MODIFIED EVERITT-JENNINGS: A COMPLETE METHODOLGY FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION OF SUCKER ROD PUMPED WELLS
Paper: (2015012)MODIFIED EVERITT-JENNINGS: A COMPLETE METHODOLGY FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION OF SUCKER ROD PUMPED WELLS
Price
$7.50
(2015013) MODIFIED EVERRIT-JENNINGS CALCULATED DOWNHOLE DATA COMPARED TO MEASURED SANDIA DATA

In the case of a vertical well, the rod string can be compared to an ideal slender bar. Therefore the propagation of stress waves occurring from cyclic loading and un-loading during a pumping cycle becomes a one dimensional phenomenon.


 


The most accurate way of computing downhole data, is therefore by solving the one-dimensional damped wave equation. The Modified Everitt-Jennings algorithm combines finite differences with other state of the art innovative algorithms to provide precise downhole data, accurately reflecting present downhole conditions.


 


In the 1990’s, Sandia National Laboratories were contracted to measure actual position and load data at different depths of the rod string through a series of downhole tools.


In this paper, results from the Modified Everitt-Jennings methodology are compared to actual field measurements, captured by the Sandia National Laboratory experiment.


Victoria Pons, Weatherford $7.50
Paper: (2015013)MODIFIED EVERRIT-JENNINGS CALCULATED DOWNHOLE DATA COMPARED TO MEASURED SANDIA DATA
Paper: (2015013)MODIFIED EVERRIT-JENNINGS CALCULATED DOWNHOLE DATA COMPARED TO MEASURED SANDIA DATA
Price
$7.50
(2015014) EFFECTIVE LOADS FROM SANDIA DOWNHOLE DYNAMOMETER TESTING

The Electronic Downhole Load Cells (DHLC) was used during the mid-1990s to acquire downhole dynamometer data.  The unique DHLC was mounted at a desired location in the rod string (usually between two rod tapers).  Dynamometer data was collected while the well operated.  SANDIA coordinated collecting DHLC data on six (6) different types of wells.  The petroleum industry provided wells and SANDIA collected, de-coded and presented the data.  NABLA and others concurrently acquired the surface Dynamometer measurements.  DownDYN software developed by SANDIA was used to display and export the collected data.


 


The dynamometer data acquired at each rod taper for each well will be displayed.  The DownDYN software is no longer supported by current Windows Operating system.  This valuable information will be lost, if the DownDYN software is not modernized.  Downhole Load Cell data measured at the pump resolved the display of the downhole pump loads. This paperwill discuss the true/effective load argument for display of downhole dynamometer data.  


O. Lynn Rowlan and James N. McCoy Echometer Company $7.50
Paper: (2015014)EFFECTIVE LOADS FROM SANDIA DOWNHOLE DYNAMOMETER TESTING
Paper: (2015014)EFFECTIVE LOADS FROM SANDIA DOWNHOLE DYNAMOMETER TESTING
Price
$7.50
(2015015) EQUIVALENT GAS FREE PUMP FILLAGE LINE

A new term “Equivalent Gas Free Pump Fillage Line” represents the amount of liquid fillage inside the pump chamber when the traveling valve opens during the down stroke.  Adjustments for gas in solution, slippage, free gas, and compressibility of liquid due to pressure and temperature are required to determine the amount of stock tank liquid produced per day for a selected stroke.


 


Field dynamometer data from eight different wells will be used to compare the calculated to measured surface oil and water production volumes.   Equivalent gas free pump fillage line will be shown for each well’s representative pump card.


 


The pump card calculated gas produced up the tubing and the acoustic fluid level tested free gas produced up the tubing/casing annulus are used to determine system gas separation efficiency.  This enhanced analysis technique allows answering many complicated questions concerning oil, water, and gas production with respect to the downhole pump card.


O. Lynn Rowlan, James N. McCoy and Carrieanne Taylor, Echometer Company Russell Brown, Well Whisper $7.50
Paper: (2015015)EQUIVALENT GAS FREE PUMP FILLAGE LINE
Paper: (2015015)EQUIVALENT GAS FREE PUMP FILLAGE LINE
Price
$7.50
(2015016) HOW SMALL DESIGN CHANGES CAN INCREASE WELL PRODUCTION AND REDUCE EQUIPMENT FAILURE

We explore how minor modifications in routine usage of typical rod pumping equipment may improve the performance of rod pumped wells; e.g. how initial proper selection and implementation of polished rods and can limit well failures.  Also discussed are pump design changes to mitigate common pumping problems, and why standardized pump designs are not over-all beneficial to producing wells.  Additionally, we illustrate that standardized or “common” downhole design limits production rates


Rodney Sands, Harbison-Fischer $7.50
Paper: (2015016)HOW SMALL DESIGN CHANGES CAN INCREASE WELL PRODUCTION AND REDUCE EQUIPMENT FAILURE
Paper: (2015016)HOW SMALL DESIGN CHANGES CAN INCREASE WELL PRODUCTION AND REDUCE EQUIPMENT FAILURE
Price
$7.50
(2015017) HIGH LIQUID VOLUME PLUNGER LIFT PERFORMANCE IN SOUTHERN DELAWARE BASIN

This paper will highlight the use of high liquid volume plunger lift to date in the Southern Delaware Basin.  This method of lift was first considered by COG Operating, LLC in an effort to bridge the gap for taking a well from flowing to rod pump.  Historically in the Southern Delaware Basin this was accomplished with high cost electric submersible pumps.  One of the criteria for success was that plunger lift would be able to replace the electric submersible pumps and economically maintain the well on its natural decline.   To date, COG has eight wells that have been successfully operating with high volume plunger lift. Representative decline curves will be presented, along with operating pressures and histories on the successful wells in the project.  The paper will be presented both from the prospective of the operator and then operating criteria from the vendor that have made this project a success.


Ian Smith and Terry Pafford, Concho Resoureces Mike Swihart, PLSI $7.50
Paper: (2015017)HIGH LIQUID VOLUME PLUNGER LIFT PERFORMANCE IN SOUTHERN DELAWARE BASIN
Paper: (2015017)HIGH LIQUID VOLUME PLUNGER LIFT PERFORMANCE IN SOUTHERN DELAWARE BASIN
Price
$7.50
(2015018) THE USE OF DYNAMOMETER DATA FOR CALCULATING THE TORSIONAL LOAD ON SUCKER-ROD PUMPING GEARBOXES

Knowledge of the magnitude of different components of mechanical torque acting on the gearbox is crucial for the design and analysis of sucker-rod pumping installations. Gearbox torques include the torque required to drive the polished rod and the torque used to rotate the counterweights. In addition to these, inertial torques arise in those parts of the pumping unit that turn at varying speeds. As shown in the paper, all torque components are functions of the crank angle, consequently their exact calculation necessitates the knowledge of the crank angle vs. time function. This circumstance, however, complicates torque calculations because contemporary dynamometers, used to acquire the necessary operating data, do not provide any information on the variation of the crank angle during the pumping cycle. The paper introduces a solution of the problem and presents an iterative calculation of the crank angle vs. time function from dynamometer data. Based on this function crank velocity, acceleration, as well as beam acceleration are easily found and all necessary gearbox torques can be evaluated. The paper describes the details of the developed calculation model and presents example calculations.


Gabor Takacs, Laszlo Kis and Adam Koncz University of Miskolc, Hungary $7.50
Paper: (2015018)THE USE OF DYNAMOMETER DATA FOR CALCULATING THE TORSIONAL LOAD ON SUCKER-ROD PUMPING GEARBOXES
Paper: (2015018)THE USE OF DYNAMOMETER DATA FOR CALCULATING THE TORSIONAL LOAD ON SUCKER-ROD PUMPING GEARBOXES
Price
$7.50
(2015019) SEQUENCING AND DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS AND FRACTURES IN SHALE PLAYS: BUILDING A COMBINED TARGETED SCHEME

The early detection of "sweet spots" for oil/gas well site selection and fracturing in shale reservoirs is a challenge for many operators. Most of the time, unique parameters are utilized (i.e. brittleness based on geomechanical and geochemical parameters) to determine the "sweet spots" for well site placement. Additionally, the fractures are generally placed equidistantly. 


 


This may create short transverse and/or non-planar hydraulic fractures that are problematic during hydraulic fracturing and may create suboptimal production.


This technology utilizes an integrated approach to site selection and fracture sequencing that allows for the optimal productivity of the well. 


 


This integrated approach utilizes both petrophysics and geomechanical data to develop a Fracturability Index to guide well site selection and fracture positioning in unconventional shale plays. It also, introduces an optimization approach based on mathematical formulations to guide scheduling of fracturing operations in big resources.


A.Alzahabi, Mohamed Soliman, G. Asquith, and R. Bateman Texas Tech University G. D. Al-Qahtani, Saudi Aramco $7.50
Paper: (2015019)SEQUENCING AND DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS AND FRACTURES IN SHALE PLAYS: BUILDING A COMBINED TARGETED SCHEME
Paper: (2015019)SEQUENCING AND DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS AND FRACTURES IN SHALE PLAYS: BUILDING A COMBINED TARGETED SCHEME
Price
$7.50
(2015022) WIRELESS LEVEL MONITORING AND DATABASE SYSTEM FOR CHEMICAL ISOTAIER TANKS

In the hydraulic fracturing industry, it has been a long-time problem and struggle to accurately track the usage of chemicals on fracturing site and make proper management decisions.  The manual approach has measurement error and the chemical inventory information cannot be accessed by people such as directors or managers who may not be on site but need the critical information for decision-making. Obtaining chemical inventory information automatically and making it available on-line would significantly save material costs, enhancing asset management efficiency. In a designed system, a guided-wave radar level sensor is used to measure the chemical level and the chemical inventory data are updated on an internet server through the satellite internet in the control van, making the information available on-line for engineers, managers and clients. The proposed monitoring and inventory system will greatly enhance asset management efficiency and reduce cost for the oil and gas industry. 


Haichang Gu, Brent Naizer and Blake Burnette Baker Hughes $7.50
Paper: (2015022)WIRELESS LEVEL MONITORING AND DATABASE SYSTEM FOR CHEMICAL ISOTAIER TANKS
Paper: (2015022)WIRELESS LEVEL MONITORING AND DATABASE SYSTEM FOR CHEMICAL ISOTAIER TANKS
Price
$7.50
(2015023) IMPLEMENTATION OF SAFETY PROTOCOLS FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY THROUGH EDUCATION AND ON-SITE RADIATION EVALUATION IN PCI/G AND ADVANCED DOSIMETRY

Worker safety is a vital part of the oil and gas industry. Enviroklean Product Development Inc. (EPDI) increases worker safety through education and training on Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). EPDI offers several different training levels including NORM awareness, NORM worker, NORM surveyor and NORM Radiation Safety Officer (RSO). Education combined with enhanced surveys and analysis of NORM by gamma spectroscopy allows for accurate readings of NORM on a job site. The gamma spectrometer is an instrument that measures the energy and intensity of radiation in a sample such as soil, scale or sludge.  EPDI in conjunction with the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab at the University of Texas has developed a gamma spectrometer and computer program that allows for real time on-site results within 15 - 30 minutes.  We have also used MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) to establish a comprehensive and flexible computer model to realistically estimate the radiation dose absorbed by a field worker.


Shauna G. Landsberger, Graham George, Siqui Wantg and Sheldon Landsberger Enviroklean Product Development Inc. and The University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory $7.50
Paper: (2015023)IMPLEMENTATION OF SAFETY PROTOCOLS FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY THROUGH EDUCATION AND ON-SITE RADIATION EVALUATION IN PCI/G AND ADVANCED DOSIMETRY
Paper: (2015023)IMPLEMENTATION OF SAFETY PROTOCOLS FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY THROUGH EDUCATION AND ON-SITE RADIATION EVALUATION IN PCI/G AND ADVANCED DOSIMETRY
Price
$7.50
(2015024) HESS UNCONVENTIONAL WELL MANAGEMENT

Amerada Petroleum drilled the first producing oil well in North Dakota in 1951. When Amerada and Hess merged, it provided Hess with a strategic position in North Dakota for the shale oil boom, assisting Hess in the acquisition of almost 900,000 acres at peak.


 


The initial development plan for North Dakota was 3 Bakken wells per Drill Spacing Unit (DSU) covering 1280 acres of total spacing. The discovery of the Three Forks formation and the success of infill drilling and tighter spacing increased the total anticipated well count for Hess in North Dakota to over 4,000 wells.


 


The expected well count in North Dakota increases the long term OPEX (failures) concern. With the current failure rate approaching 0.5 failures/well/year, 2,000 failures per year would put a massive burden on resources. This paper will review the process Hess has adopted in order to manage and decrease failure rate while increasing the total well count.


Isaac Whitley, Hess Corporation $7.50
Paper: (2015024)HESS UNCONVENTIONAL WELL MANAGEMENT
Paper: (2015024)HESS UNCONVENTIONAL WELL MANAGEMENT
Price
$7.50
(2015025) IMPROVING PARAFFIN TREATING BY MODERNIZING CHEMICAL

Improving Paraffin Treating by Modernizing Chemical Applications: A Case Study of Pressurized Injection vs Positive Displacement Pump


 


This paper describes a novel technology that applies paraffin inhibitor with a pressurized injection system. The technology uses nitrogen gas to pressurize a chemical reservoir.  An electric programmable valve controls the flow of chemical out of the reservoir.  Adding an electric programmable valve to the flow line integrates chemical treatment and flush operation.


 


Pumping units using the pressurized chemical system have been able to increase the time between well interventions due to paraffin deposition.  


Performance of the treatment and integrated flush improve chemical delivery and improve chemical performance.


 


Satellite telemetry allows users to remotely monitor the chemical usage, inventory, and reservoir re-filling to add a level of confidence and dependability to the system.  The system can tie to either the pumping unit or well PLC/POC to only operate when the well is operating.


Greg Darby and Bobby Ayers, Pro-Ject Chemicals, Inc $7.50
Paper: (2015025)IMPROVING PARAFFIN TREATING BY MODERNIZING CHEMICAL
Paper: (2015025)IMPROVING PARAFFIN TREATING BY MODERNIZING CHEMICAL
Price
$7.50
(2015026) MAKING SURE PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT AND OCCUPIED STRUCTURES ARE LOCATED PROPERLY AT OIL AND GAS FACILITIES

Determining the optimal equipment layout for an oil and gas facility must consider hazards resulting from a fire, explosion or toxic gas releases.  Over the years, many incidents have occurred where workers were injured or equipment was damaged by explosions, fire or toxic gas releases when equipment or occupied structures were not located properly. This paper presents “state of the art” techniques to allow facility designers to optimally locate equipment to reduce the risk of injury and equipment damage.


 


This paper reviews current industry “best practices” and also presents examples for the proper layout and spacing of equipment at oil and gas facilities.  The techniques presented in the paper enable the facilities designer or Engineer to quickly gather the information needed for the analysis, evaluate credible scenarios and then make the necessary judgments to properly locate equipment.  The result of using the information presented in this paper is that equipment and occupied structures are properly located and spaced to reduce operational and safety risk.    


Jim Johnstone, Mike Leonard and Mike Spangler Contek Solutions LLC $7.50
Paper: (2015026)MAKING SURE PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT AND OCCUPIED STRUCTURES ARE LOCATED PROPERLY AT OIL AND GAS FACILITIES
Paper: (2015026)MAKING SURE PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT AND OCCUPIED STRUCTURES ARE LOCATED PROPERLY AT OIL AND GAS FACILITIES
Price
$7.50
(2015027) REVIEW OF ONSHORE TEXAS PARAFFIN PROBLEMS AND MITIGATION TECHNIQUES

: Paraffin is one of the major flow assurance problem in west and south Texas.  The mitigation techniques for the case of onshore paraffin deposition is different from the offshore case.  Chemical treatment is used instead of a pigging method for the onshore case.  The current reliable methods for the onshore paraffin treatment are (1) downhole chemical injection, (2) solid paraffin inhibitor pumped during hydraulic fracturing, (3) hot water or oil circulation.  The magnetic conditioning is also being 


used in some field, despite the lack in the understanding of this method.  


 


This paper reviews the current understanding in paraffin deposition problem (single-phase, oil-water, gas-oil), mitigation technique and its current development.


Ekarit Panacharoensawad, Texas Tech University $7.50
Paper: (2015027)REVIEW OF ONSHORE TEXAS PARAFFIN PROBLEMS AND MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
Paper: (2015027)REVIEW OF ONSHORE TEXAS PARAFFIN PROBLEMS AND MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
Price
$7.50
(2015029) A PROPOSED CORRELATION FOR PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF CRITCAL FLOW THROUGH SURFACE WELLHEAD CHOKES

Accurate prediction of the behavior of multi-phase flow through wellhead chokes is required for modern production design and optimization of oil well performance.


This study presents the development of an empirical correlation that predicts the performance of simultaneous flow of oil, gas and water mixture through wellhead chokes. The correlation was derived on the basis of actual production data. The newly developed correlation predicts liquid flow rates as a function of flowing wellhead pressure, gas/liquid ratio and surface wellhead choke size.


 


The study involves a comparison between the available choke correlations based on 200 field tests from twenty wells. The correlations used in this study are those of Gilbert, Al-Attar, Ros, Baxendall, Achonge, and Secen. The Absolute average percent difference is computed for each correlation. Secen correlation has the lowest error compared to the other examined correlations. However, none of the tested correlations is found to be accurate in all ranges of wellhead pressure, gas/ liquid ratio and choke size. The validity of each of these correlations is limited to a specific operational condition for which the correlations are determined. As a result the strength of those correlations for predicting the actual flow rate is restricted.


Due to discrepancy of results obtained by the included correlations, multiple regression analysis using the statistical technique using the Doolittle method is used to create correlation that best fit the measured data. The proposed correlation is similar to the Gilbert-type empirical correlation.


 


The new correlation was examined against other correlations using another 110 well test data. The results are found to be statistically very good compared to those predicted by other published correlations considered in this work. 


Fathi Elldakli and Mohamed Soliman Texas Tech University $7.50
Paper: (2015029)A PROPOSED CORRELATION FOR PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF CRITCAL FLOW THROUGH SURFACE WELLHEAD CHOKES
Paper: (2015029)A PROPOSED CORRELATION FOR PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF CRITCAL FLOW THROUGH SURFACE WELLHEAD CHOKES
Price
$7.50
(2015030) GEL PACK- A NOVEL CONCEPT TO OPTIMIZE PREFORMED PARTICLE GEL CONFORMATION CONTROL TREATMENT DESIGN

A newer trend in gel treatments is using preformed particle gels (PPGs) to reduce fluid channels through super-high permeability streaks/fractures. This work sought to determine what factors influence the blocking efficiency of PPG on fluid channels.


 


A transparent model was designed to observe the compression of gel particles in fluid channels at different load pressures to study the effect of different parameters on PPG blocking efficiency.


 


Permeable gel pack was formed in fluid channels by gel particles and its permeability depends on particle sizes, brine concentrations, and load pressure. Gel pack is compressed and its permeability is reduced as load pressure increases. The permeability of gel pack increases with the increase of particle sizes. The blocking efficiency of particle gels on channels will reduce if we select large sized or/and strong particles.


 


A gel pack which has a desired permeability can be designed by selecting proper gel at reservoir pressures.

Mahomoud Elsharafi, Midwestern State University Baojun Bai, Missouri University of Science and Technology $7.50
Paper: (2015030)GEL PACK- A NOVEL CONCEPT TO OPTIMIZE PREFORMED PARTICLE GEL CONFORMATION CONTROL TREATMENT DESIGN
Paper: (2015030)GEL PACK- A NOVEL CONCEPT TO OPTIMIZE PREFORMED PARTICLE GEL CONFORMATION CONTROL TREATMENT DESIGN
Price
$7.50
(2015031) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATING OF THE PERFORMANCE OF CYCLIC GAS INJECTION (CGI) ON ACID STIMULATED SHALE OIL CORES

The combination of two technologies- horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing- made it possible to produce shale oil reservoirs economically.Although the massive stimulation treatment is the primary solution to recover efficient amount of oil from shale oil reservoirs, the recovery factors of these reservoirs are expected to be around 5-10%.The enormous remaining oil volumes stimulate our efforts to investigate the application of enhanced oil recovery methods in shale oil reservoirs. In unconventional reservoirs, cyclic gas injection using various gases could be an effective technique. Since it is a single-well process, well-to-well connectivity is not required. The hydraulic fracturing provides a large contact area for the injected gas to penetrate and diffuse into the low-permeability matrix swelling the volume of oil and increasing the near wellbore pressure which helps increasing the oil recovery in the production stage of this technique. Experimental and numerical studies by Gamadi et al, 2013 and 2014, and Tovar et al 2014, have shown that there is a great potential of increasing the recovery factor from shale oil formation. Since the hydraulic fracturing provides a large contact area for the injected gas to penetrate and diffuse into the low-permeability matrix, we investigated the performance of Cyclic Gas Injection on acid stimulated shale oil cores. The aim of the acid stimulation treatment was to improve the low-permeability matrix of the shale cores. The results showed that the acid treatment cores resulted in improving the porosity and permeability, this improvement led to better recovery factors comparing to unstimulated cores. In the conclusion, the combination of acid stimulation treatment followed by cyclic gas injection led to improving the recovery factors of the shale cores to about 50 % comparing to the unstimulated shale oil cores used in previous studies by Talal 2013 and 2014.


Raymond Eghorieta and Gamadi Talal Texas Tech University $7.50
Paper: (2015031)EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATING OF THE PERFORMANCE OF CYCLIC GAS INJECTION (CGI) ON ACID STIMULATED SHALE OIL CORES
Paper: (2015031)EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATING OF THE PERFORMANCE OF CYCLIC GAS INJECTION (CGI) ON ACID STIMULATED SHALE OIL CORES
Price
$7.50
(2015032) A REVIEW OF BEST PRACTICES IN OIL AND GAS WELL CEMENTING

Oil well cementing has come a long way since the first verified use of cement in oil wells in 1903 by Union Oil Company. The years that followed have seen a remarkable amount of research and technological innovation in fluid flow mechanics, cement rheology, cement additives and cement job procedure. Given its purpose, well cementing is perhaps the most crucial stage in the development of any oil or gas well and as such proper procedure and guidelines as well as adherence to regulations are necessary to ensure success. This paper presents a summary of recommended best practices for all the stages of a cement job, from slurry design and lab testing, to job design, execution and evaluation.


Alexander Anya, Texas Tech University $7.50
Paper: (2015032)A REVIEW OF BEST PRACTICES IN OIL AND GAS WELL CEMENTING
Paper: (2015032)A REVIEW OF BEST PRACTICES IN OIL AND GAS WELL CEMENTING
Price
$7.50
(2015033) EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF VERTICAL OIL WELLS BY USING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PERFORATING HIGH SHOT DENSITY (HSD) GUNS

This work explains how to evaluate the different perforation parameters of the production vertical oil wells by using both reservoir and perforation information. We collected the necessary data from Hungarian oil wells including reservoir description data from the MOL Company files. We also collected the perforating guns data from the Schlumberger Company. We used four perforating HSD guns with different charge and explosive load design.


 


We used a calculation method to determine the perforation depth, the influence of the different composite skin effect (damage skin factor, crushed zone skin factor, and the perforation skin factor), than we evaluate the flow rate of the different kind of guns. After giving the detailed figures and results, we evaluate the results of the perforation work. In conclusion, Hungarian oil wells will improved their productivity by using high shut density guns. Flow rate evaluation needs a good knowledge of rock properties, and flow properties.


Mahomoud Elsharafi, Midwestern State University Tibor Bodi, University of Miskolc, Hungary $7.50
Paper: (2015033)EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF VERTICAL OIL WELLS BY USING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PERFORATING HIGH SHOT DENSITY (HSD) GUNS
Paper: (2015033)EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF VERTICAL OIL WELLS BY USING DIFFERENT KINDS OF PERFORATING HIGH SHOT DENSITY (HSD) GUNS
Price
$7.50
(2015034) UNDERBALANCED COMPLETIONS: A COMPARISON OF TWO WELL INTERVENTION METHODS

Various options are available for successful underbalanced well intervention.  This paper will compare two common methods, coiled tubing and snubbing (hydraulic workover), discussing each approach’s advantages, applications, and wellbore considerations in selecting an underbalanced intervention method.  In addition, unit specifications, basic calculations and selection criteria will be addressed.


Colin Fitzgerald, Basic Energy Services $7.50
Paper: (2015034)UNDERBALANCED COMPLETIONS: A COMPARISON OF TWO WELL INTERVENTION METHODS
Paper: (2015034)UNDERBALANCED COMPLETIONS: A COMPARISON OF TWO WELL INTERVENTION METHODS
Price
$7.50
(2015035) HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT JOB SELECTION AND DESIGN EXECUTION

Adequate preparation & design helps assure successful hydraulic fracturing.  This paper will discuss the basic information that goes into frac design including fluid type, proppant selection, and equipment requirements.  In addition, basic calculations, quality control and additional requirements for job preparation will be discussed.


Colin Fitzgerald, Basic Energy Services $7.50
Paper: (2015035)HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT JOB SELECTION AND DESIGN EXECUTION
Paper: (2015035)HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT JOB SELECTION AND DESIGN EXECUTION
Price
$7.50
(2015036) AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT SKIN FACTOR OF A LIBYAN OILFIELD

Formation damage management and remediation are both a science and an art (Civan 1996). Currently, there are no proven technologies that are treated for all problems that an oil company may encounter. The issues revolving around formation damage is one of these convoluted issues which many oil companies currently struggle with. This paper has proposed such an innovative approach centered upon three dimensionless groups as well as multiple regression analysis using MINITAB (a statistical computing program) to foster an empirical model to predict skin factor for Field XXX which belongs to a Libyan Oil Company. The first step in this endeavor was employed by the use of data collection consisting of buildup data history and fluid properties from eight oil wells. A total of 39 observations were used in this study. Of these wells, 27 observations were used to develop the empirical model. The remaining 12 observations were chosen randomly to test the capability and validity of the model to validate the empirical model and test predictive competence, predicted skin factor values were compared against skin factor values determined from the buildup test analysis shown in Statistical evidence proved that the model illustrated in this thesis is advantageous and may potentially be utilized in efforts to predict of skin factor. Comparing the developed model predicted results to the observed buildup test results, demonstrations have shown that there is a correlation between the results and well ability of the developed model to estimate skin factor. As a result, this study offers the following conclusions: The size of the data set, used in the development of the empirical model, had significant effects on construction of the model, since the data used for developing the model must be good enough to increase the accuracy of model. In this study, 39 observations were used to form and test the model, which had six variables divided into three groups.   These 39 observations represent five years of the production history of eight wells. The developed model presented in this study has the ability to further assist understanding, and evaluating the formation damage by predicting skin factor. The developed model also has the potential use of predicting skin factor instead of conducting a buildup test every year. This will reduce operating unit technical cost (UTC), and save millions of dollars for the Libyan operating company. When the mechanistic or mathematical models correlating certain variables are unknown, statistical tools are shown to be useful in development of models correlating with two or more variables of concern.


Talal Gamadi and Ramadan Mohammed, Texas Tech Unviersity $7.50
Paper: (2015036)AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT SKIN FACTOR OF A LIBYAN OILFIELD
Paper: (2015036)AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT SKIN FACTOR OF A LIBYAN OILFIELD
Price
$7.50
(2015037) ELIMINATING CASING PATCHES AND RESTORING WELLBORE INTEGRITY - A SOLIDS FREE RESIN SYSTEM CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING STIMULATION TREATMENTS

The development of horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing has allowed operators to develop unconventional shale plays once considered uneconomical. As operators move toward longer horizontal and multilateral sections in these plays, the complexity with respect to well stimulation and completion systems increases. Before a well is stimulated or completed, critical problems can emerge, such as casing leaks. Depending on the well configuration, traditional remediation methods might be unable to withstand stimulation treatments, difficult to apply and/or create a restriction in the casing inside diameter. This paper discusses how an acid and abrasion resistant resin system was applied to remediate a tight leak in the multi-stage cementing tool of a 5.5 in production casing and enabled the operator to pass a pressure test and carry out the planned stimulation of the well in twenty-five stages, without any signs of a leak.


Olvin Hernandez, Paul Jones and Don King, Halliburton John David Willimon, Cimarex Energy $7.50
Paper: (2015037)ELIMINATING CASING PATCHES AND RESTORING WELLBORE INTEGRITY - A SOLIDS FREE RESIN SYSTEM CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING STIMULATION TREATMENTS
Paper: (2015037)ELIMINATING CASING PATCHES AND RESTORING WELLBORE INTEGRITY - A SOLIDS FREE RESIN SYSTEM CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING STIMULATION TREATMENTS
Price
$7.50
(2015038) THE BASICS OF SLICKWATER FRACTURING

 Slickwater Fracturing has enabled us to penetrate deeper into tight formations than ever before. This presentation will discuss the basic fundamentals of  Slickwater fracturing with respect to the  base fluid,chemical additives, the frac process,the advantages and disadvantages of Slickwater, proppant placement, proppant selection, and Slickwater frac candidates. We will also give a brief description of the Equipment requirements to perform a Slickwater frac successfully and safely .By providing this information we will aid in the understanding how Slickwater transports proppant and places this proppant in the fracture.       


Dan Klaus, Basic Energy Services $7.50
Paper: (2015038)THE BASICS OF SLICKWATER FRACTURING
Paper: (2015038)THE BASICS OF SLICKWATER FRACTURING
Price
$7.50
(2015039) CARBONATE ACIDIZING-DESIGNING FOR SUCCESS

Oil and gas production is from conventional and unconventional formations, with both requiring some form of stimulation.  Limestone and dolomite are considered conventional formations which are stimulated with various treatments, either above fracturing pressure or below.  Treatments above fracturing pressure are hydraulically created cracks that use either proppant or acid to maintain flow paths after closure.  Treatments at pressures below fracturing use acids to create wormholes that penetrate into the reservoir bypassing any near wellbore damage.


 


This paper will provide an overview of the process that should be implemented in the design of an acid stimulation treatment to provide the best opportunity of successful production improvement.  Specifically being addressed are the criteria that defines the need for an acid fracture treatment over a propped treatment, staging and diversion to obtain better zone coverage, how to overcome temperature limitations, etc.


Arthur S. Metcalf, Baker Hughes $7.50
Paper: (2015039)CARBONATE ACIDIZING-DESIGNING FOR SUCCESS
Paper: (2015039)CARBONATE ACIDIZING-DESIGNING FOR SUCCESS
Price
$7.50